As the global community faces the escalating challenges of climate change, the debate in energy cycles is increasingly turning towards sustainability and the integration of innovative technologies. Greece, with its strategic geographic location and rich natural resources, is uniquely positioned to capitalise on this shift, pushing it towards a greener and more sustainable future.

The emphasis is on the diversification of renewable energy technologies, such as offshore wind or floating farms, which Greece aims to exploit significantly, with the aim of having a capacity of at least 2 GW by 2030. This is in line with the broader European ambition of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 and aligned with the EU’s aggressive target of a 55% reduction in emissions within this decade. Technologies such as carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) are vital in this effort. These technologies represent a strategic investment to reduce CO2 emissions and are essential to maintain energy security.

The adoption of the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) and the proposal of the Corporate Sustainability Due Diligence Directive (CSDD) in the EU underline the commitment to corporate transparency and accountability. These directives require thorough reporting on environmental and social impacts, ensuring that companies live up to their sustainability claims. In addition, the green claims regulations set standards for documented and genuine representations of environmental efforts. This regulatory framework acts as an insurance policy against “greenwashing” by promoting authentic sustainability practices.

The country’s push towards green energy also involves exploiting Greece’s geographical advantages for geothermal energy and exploring the potential of wave energy. For example through the use of geothermal plants, Steam Mixture Flash Plant, steam is decompressed and separated into two supplies of steam and hot water. They are then used to generate electricity or for other thermal needs. Similarly, in the oscillating water column, waves enter a chamber, compressing the trapped air, which is then pushed through a turbine to generate electricity. These efforts can contribute to a diversified energy mix, reducing dependence on imported and fossil fuels.

Based on the established framework, Greece’s energy transformation strategy should also harness smart technologies to create a more efficient and resilient energy network. The integration of smart energy systems, powered by artificial intelligence and machine learning, can optimise energy distribution and consumption patterns, reducing waste and increasing efficiency. Investment in research and development of green technologies, including advanced battery storage solutions and smart grids, is essential. These technologies are vital to manage the intermittent nature of renewable energy and ensure stable energy supply.

Smart grid technologies, supported by advanced data analytics and the Internet of Things (IoT), are revolutionising the way energy is distributed and managed. These networks can effectively balance the supply of energy from renewable sources, addressing intermittency issues. Equally essential for urban living are electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, intelligent public lighting, waste management and water saving systems. These systems use sensors and real-time data to optimise resource use, reduce waste and lower operating costs.

At the same time, Greece must fortify its political and legal framework to attract investment in sustainable energy infrastructure. Clear and consistent policies can promote innovation and investment, fostering a thriving environment for both green technology start-ups and established players.

In conclusion, Greece’s path to a sustainable future lies in a multi-level approach that includes the expansion of renewable energy, the adoption of cutting-edge energy efficiency technologies, and a strong regulatory environment that promotes transparency and sustainability in corporate behaviour. This integrated strategy will not only address environmental concerns, but will also create economic opportunities, pushing Greece towards a leading role in the global transition to sustainable energy.


The importance of ESG factors in business decision-making processes is growing in the evolving field of corporate environmental responsibility. In this context, and in an effort to avoid the risk of unforeseen harm from proposed but untested high-tech solutions, “earth-tech” carbon sequestration approaches are coming into focus, where natural processes and organisms successfully fill in the gaps of our current technological capabilities.

One approach of flagship importance for saving the planet, and highly effective according to the available evidence, is increasing the global population of whales, as it emerges as an international ‘non-technological’ strategy for capturing more carbon, helping to protect the environment.

Large whales, in particular, have a significant carbon sequestration capacity, storing carbon in adipose tissue during their lifetime. When they die, they sink to the ocean floor, where each great whale sequesters an average of 33 tonnes of CO2, removing carbon from the atmosphere for centuries, while a tree can only absorb up to 48 kg of CO2 per year. The term ‘whale pump’ rightly highlights the crucial role of whales in marine nutrient recycling, particularly in the fertilisation of phytoplankton, which has a significant impact on atmospheric CO2 levels. Phytoplankton not only contributes at least 50% of the oxygen in the atmosphere, but achieves this by sequestering about 37 billion metric tons of CO2, estimated to be 40% of all CO2 produced. By comparison, it is estimated that this is equivalent to the amount of CO2 sequestered by 1.70 trillion trees – 4 Amazon forests – or 70 times the amount absorbed by all the trees in US national and state Redwood parks each year.

Researchers at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimate that the economic value of a whale’s carbon sequestration potential during its lifetime exceeds $1 trillion. This valuation is critical for considering legal implications and developing international mechanisms similar to the UN’s REDD program for forest conservation. Recognizing that deforestation is responsible for 17% of carbon emissions, the REDD program provides incentives for countries to conserve their forests as a means of keeping CO2 out of the atmosphere. In a similar way, we can create financial mechanisms to promote the recovery of the world’s whale populations. Incentives in the form of subsidies or other compensation could help those who incur significant costs as a result of whale conservation. For example, shipping companies could be compensated for the costs of changing shipping routes to reduce the risk of collisions.

This solution, however, raises questions that are difficult to answer. Firstly, there must be a financial facility to protect whales and other natural assets. However, exactly how many resources are we prepared to spend on the protection of whales? The IMF estimates that if whale numbers return to pre-whaling levels, when they were capturing about 1.7 billion tonnes of CO2 per year, it would be worth subsidising the whales’ CO2 capture efforts at around $13 per person per year. Even a 1% increase in phytoplankton productivity due to whale activity would sequester hundreds of millions of tons of additional CO2 per year, equivalent to the sudden appearance of 2 billion mature trees.

In any case, despite the drastic reduction in commercial whaling, whales still face significant risks to their survival, including injuries from ships, entanglement in fishing nets, plastic waste carried into the water, and noise pollution. The need for integrated approaches that include legal, economic and technological solutions to address cetacean mortality is urgent.

Incorporating whale survival into the goals of the 190 countries that signed the 2015 Paris Agreement would be a checkmate move to combat climate risk.

The drive for a more sustainable and environmentally responsible future brings the coupling of sustainability, green energy, and technology into focus. All countries are now aiming for a green energy transition, with Greece on the threshold of an energy revolution.

Sustainability, at its core, is about ensuring that the needs of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is a noble pursuit that requires rethinking our approach to resource management and energy production, such as by promoting the use of electric cars and public transportation. Green energy, a key pillar of sustainability, involves harnessing natural resources such as sun, water, wind and geothermal energy to produce energy while minimising environmental impacts. This sustainable approach is not only environmentally responsible but also economically sound.

Greece, with its abundant sources of clean renewable energy, such as sunlight and offshore wind resources, is in a privileged position. So as we envision a future where sustainable energy production and resource management will take the lead, it is clear that this transformation will not be possible without the integration of advanced technology. Cutting-edge solutions such as offshore wind or floating farms, energy wave converters, smart bins and green space sensors are essential to maximise efficiency, optimise resource allocation and promote sustainable development in the country.

Through the ethical use of technology, there is an opportunity to create smart inclusive cities that will redefine urban living. The concept of smart cities is gaining ground worldwide. An important example is the city of Amsterdam, which has implemented smart traffic and parking management systems, as well as the use of Internet of Things technology to monitor air quality and provide direct information to citizens. These urban centres are designed to be efficient, environmentally friendly and technologically advanced, optimising energy use, reducing waste and improving the quality of life of their residents. Greece’s pursuit of smart cities is fully aligned with the global movement for sustainable development.

In this movement, industrial hubs are critical elements of sustainable smart cities and play a key role in achieving environmental goals. The integration of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) and bioenergy with carbon capture and utilisation (BECCUS) technologies are instrumental in reducing, capturing and storing carbon emissions from industrial processes and energy production, as well as creating new opportunities for sustainable resource management. The utilisation of carbon can include its conversion into valuable products such as chemicals, fuels or building materials, contributing to a circular economy. The application of these technologies in Greece promises accessibility to clean air and energy. Exploiting Greece’s industrial hubs and abundant renewable resources facilitates the adoption of CCUS, BECCUS and carbon recovery practices, ultimately promoting the transition to green energy.

Recognizing the above developments, a newly established Greek sustainability consultancy, Energon Green Solutions, not only aligns itself with the new imperative environmental needs, but is emerging as a pan-European innovator in the field. The company, founded in 2021 by two brothers, students, Spyros Nikitas Tsamichas (lawyer) and Marios-Fokas Tsamichas (economist), alongside their studies, aims to redefine human living through the creation of sustainable cities and practices, was awarded first place in the 2023 Idea Competition of Maastricht University, receiving a prize money from Universiteitsfonds Limburg/Swol for the implementation of University Artificial Virtual Assistants (University Artificial Virtual Assistant / Chatbot).

The aim of digital assistants is to correctly direct and answer user questions (citizens, students, employees, staff) through automated optimisation and data processing. Faster and more efficient use of data aims at transparency, cost reduction and more effective adoption of new sustainable strategies. Leveraging innovative technologies and legal expertise, Energon Green Solutions of the Chamicha Brothers is dedicated to helping businesses, industries and government agencies seamlessly align with new green practices.

From navigating complex regulatory landscapes and regulatory compliance to implementing sustainable energy solutions, two young people dreamed through Energon Green Solutions to provide a holistic approach to consulting, promoting responsible resource management and green energy adoption. And they made it happen.